# Investment terms

1 Week Stock Price Total Return
Shows a stock’s percentage change over the period of a week.

1 Year Stock Price Total Return
Shows a stock’s percentage change over the period of a year.

6 Month Stock Price Total Return
Shows a stock’s percentage change over the period of a 6 months.

Altman Z-Score
It’s a formula, created by Edward Altman, that can be used to predict the probability of a company becoming bankrupt within 2 years.

Avg Daily Volume
Shows the average number of shares that are traded daily over a certain period of time. Usually over the last 3 months.

Basic EPS Growth
Shows the growth of the EPS over the last 12 months. It’s a measure of profitability.

Ben Graham Formula Upside
It’s defined by the increase one can expect by applying the Benjamin Graham Formula.

Ben Graham Formula Value
It’s a formula, created by professor Benjamin Graham, that estimates a stock’s intrinsic value.

Beneish M-Score
It’s a mathematical model whose purpose is to detect if a company is misrepresenting or even manipulating its earnings.

Beta (5 Year)
Beta is one of the most valuable market indicators, as it allows an investor to check how a certain stock is moving when compared to the entire market or to a specific sector. If the beta is above 1 it means that the stock has volatility than the market, while the opposite happens if the indicator is below 1.

Capital Expenditures Margin
It’s a percentual value that expresses the weight of the capital expenditures in the total revenue.

Cash Return On Invested Capital (CROIC)
It’s defined by the generated Free Cash Flow divided by its Invested Capital. It illustrates how much free cash flow can be created per unit of capital invested.

Current Ratio
Compares the totality of current assets with the totality of current liabilities.

Days To Next Earnings
Estimated number of days left to the presentation of the next earnings report.

Debt / Equity
It compares a company’s total debt to its shareholder equity, showing what percentage of the operations is being financed through debt instead of its own equity.

Description
Shows a description of the analyzed company.

Dividend CAGR (3y)
Illustrates a company’s stock dividend (per share) annual growth rate over the last 3 years.

Dividend CAGR (5y)
Illustrates a company’s stock dividend (per share) annual growth rate over the last 5 years.

Dividend CAGR (7y)
Illustrates a company’s stock dividend (per share) annual growth rate over the last 7 years.

Dividend Growth
Percentage dividend growth between two defined periods.

Dividend Per Share
The per share payment each shareholder receives as part of the company’s profit over the last 12 months.

Dividend Yield
The specific yield that a dividend pays. Calculated by dividing the annual dividend by the current stock price.

Earnings Yield
Earnings per share divided by the company’s current stock price. It’s the exact opposite of the P\E.

Enterprise Value
The sum of a company’s market capitalization and its net debt (Long term debt + short term debt – cash)

Enterprise Value / EBITDA
A similar, but more interesting ratio than the P\E, as it allows for comparisons between companies of different industries and with different capital structures.

Fair Value
An asset’s assumption of value, either over or underpriced.

Free Cash Flow Yield
A calculation of the free cash flow per unit of equity. Free cash flow divided by the company’s market capitalization.

Gross Profit Margin (%)
Calculated by dividing a company’s gross profit by its sales.

Index Membership
Whenever a specific stock is used by an index for its calculation. (For example, Microsoft is part of the S&P 500).

Levered Free Cash Flow
Calculated by adding Net Income, Depreciation, Amortization and subtracting capital expenditures, debt payments and change in net working capital. Basically tells us what a company has after paying all its financial obligations.

Market Cap
Calculated by multiplying a company’s current share price by the number of outstanding shares, thus defining its size.

Moral Hazard
The reason why people default on loans or the name given to people who are likely to default.

Net Income Margin %
Net income divided by total revenue. It reflects the amount of profit a company achieves as part of its total sales.

P/E Ratio
A widely used ratio calculated by dividing a company’s current stock price by its trailing annual earnings per share.

P/E Ratio (Fwd)
The same as the P\E Ratio except the expected annual earnings is used, instead of the trailing.

PEG Ratio
Calculated by dividing the current P\E Ratio by the five-year expected earnings growth. Tends to give a better view of a company’s real value as it factors in the expected earnings growth rates.

Piotroski Score
Named after Joseph Piotroski, it’s a number between 1 and 9 used to evaluate a company’s financial strength.

Price / Book
Current stock price divided by shareholder equity per share. Gives us a comparison between a stock’s market value and the company’s book value (total assets – total liabilities).

Pre tax-return on assets
“EBIT” /”Average Assets” or

Post-tax-return on assets.
(“EBIT ” × (1┤ − ├ 𝜏))/”Average Assets”

Quick Ratio
Current assets minus current liabilities. A ratio that provides a measurement of short-term liquidity.

Relative Strength Index (14d)
Measures an asset price movement acceleration. Usually used to predict future price direction changes.

Return on Assets
The ROA is a profitability indicator calculated by dividing a company’s trailing 12 months net income by the total assets.

“ROA “= “EBIT (Earnings before interest and taxes)” /”Assets”

Return on Equity
Calculated by dividing a firm’s net income by its common shareholder equity. As an indicator of profitability it pretends to show how well the company is using its own money.

“ROE “= “Net Income” /(“Shareholders” ’ “Equity” )

Return on Long-term Capital
“ROC “= “EBIT” /”Long−term Debt + Equity “

Return on Invested Capital
Calculated by dividing Net Income (less dividends paid) by Equity plus Debt. This ratio measures how well a company is investing its capital.

Revenue CAGR (3y)
Indicates a company’s revenue growth rate over a period of 3 years.

Revenue CAGR (5y)
Indicates a company’s revenue growth rate over a period of 5 years.

Revenue Growth
Indicates a company’s revenue growth between two specific dates.

Sector
Shows the company’s sector.

Shareholder Valuation Return
The return and value provided to shareholders

Short Interest Ratio
The number of a company’s shares that have been traded short as a percentage of its average total daily volume. It somehow reflects the level of optimism (or pessimism) regarding a specific stock.

Stock Exchange
The specific stock exchange where the company’s shares are listed and traded.

Stock Price (Current)
The current price at which a share is being traded

Total Debt to Capital (%)
Calculated by dividing total interest-bearing debt by a company’s total capital (debt + shareholder’s equity). The lower the value, the better, as it shows that less debt is being used to finance future growth.

Total Revenues
Considers the full amount of revenues obtained by selling products or services.

Uncertainty
An asset’s assumption of risk.

Upside (Analyst Target)
The amount by which analysts expect a share price to increase.

Upside
The amount by which the share price is expected to increase.

Yield Curve Inversion
This happens when the return for holding a shorter treasury bill is higher than a longer bill. For instance, the yield on a two-year treasury bond maybe 2% but the yield on a ten-year bond may only be 1%. This is counter-intuitive as the longer you hold an asset the more risk is involved therefore a higher yield should be paid.